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Answer 1: Sufism is controversial in Islam. The vast majority of the Muslims are Sunni or shia (or Shiite). Some see Sufism as just another denomination of islam, like Sunnis or shi'ites, but others see it as in any place of simply a valid way of practicing Islam, all the way to be out of the Islamic faith tradition altogether. For those who believe that Sufism is not really even a form of Islam, then, obviously, the Sufis have made no contribution to Muslim literature. All Muslims believe that they are on a path to a closeness with God in the life after death, but Sufis believe that it is possible to embrace The Divine Presence in this life, by means of the attainment of the primordial state of "fitra." Sufis are trained to use "intuitive and emotional faculties" to focus on the more spiritual aspects of religion, and so strive to find divine love and knowledge through personal experience of God, by means of a variety of mystical and ascetic techniques and practices. The sufis believe that the angel Gabriel revealed to the Prophet Muhammad, the perfection of the worship of the practice called "Ihsan", which calls upon Muhammad to "[w]orship and serve Allah as you are seeing Him and while you see Him not, but He really sees you." Some Muslim scholars think of Sufism as a "science" through which one can search for the "reparation of the heart and [the] circle [of] far from everything else, but God," or "through which one can know how to travel in the presence of the Divine, purify the interior of the filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits." Sufism, the scholars, simply describes Islam inner and more esoteric dimensions... the perfection of worship. Sufism, then, as defined by its followers (and the scholars who have written about him), is not so much an Islamic name as is the inner, mystical dimension of Islam in which any Muslim can participate in. Therefore, some of the Sufi orders (called tariqas) consider themselves either Sunni or Shia, while others say no, and refer to themselves, intentionally, as clearly Sufi Muslims. This, then, are more likely to be seen as, or to think of themselves as more than just those who practice a more perfect form of worship of a Muslim, but a Muslim denomination, as well. Many scholars believe that the base of the roots of Sufism are old-fashioned, made, and of earlier date, not only Islam, but also most other modern religions, except, perhaps, for Jainism and Buddhism. The word "sufi" is believed to derive from the Greek word "sophia" meaning "wisdom". After Gabriel's revelation of Sufi Ihsan, the perfection of the worship of Muhammad, in the 7th century, the Muslim Conquests and the expansion of the Muslim empire of the Middle East through China and the Indian subcontinent, in Central Asia, North Africa, Sicily and the Iberian Peninsula to the Pyrenees mountains caused thousands of adherents and practitioners of other religions (specifically Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism) to fall under Muslim control. It is believed (though disputed, especially by those who believe that Sufism is outside the sphere of true Islam) that, during those years, the Muslim clerics were influenced in their refinement of Sufism the mysticism and the esotericism of Buddhism and Hinduism (and even Christianity), and the example, techniques and methods of Christian hermits and monks who continued their daily practice of faith despite being under the Muslim rule. The great scriptures, ancient and modern, about these early aspects of Sufism have contributed in no small measure to the body of Muslim literature. During the first millennium, several manuals intended to help the Islamic world to understand the Sufism were created, the two most famous of which were "Kashf al-MahjÃ"b" of Hujwiri, and the "RisÃ¢la" of Qushayri... both considered important Sufi contributions to Muslim literature. Because some Islamic purists see Sufism as outside of Islam (because, as the sect Salafi puts it, Sufism contains unjustified religious innovation") Sufism vast writings of simply apologia, to defend and to explain in the face of his critics (and also works inspired by) are also a great contribution to the Muslim literature. Of course, again, if a Muslim happens to believe that Sufism is outside of Islam, then s/he does not agree. Sufism's contribution to other fields of literature or other effort is not insignificant. For example, Sufism is Lataif-e-sitta, or "the centers of subtle cognition" and the awakening of the spiritual intuition is believed to have helped to refine such as Hinduism, the notion of the chakras. In addition, both Sunni and Shia traditions recognize Sufism three concepts of nafs, qalb and ruh; and the three resulting spiritual types of the tyrant, spiritual moderate, and those that have been lost in the love of God. The perfection of the Sufi practice stives for the second. Sufism has also made no small contributions-general of the Muslim literature in the field of metaphysics, and the notions of Wahdat al-Wujud (unity of existence) and Wahdat al-Shuhud (unity of witness); or cosmology, based on the words of the Qur'an with respect to immaterial beings, life after death, the soul, the seven heavens, God, etc, Sufi writings on deeply spiritual approaches to the "dhikr" (which is explained in the next paragraph) they are also a great contribution to the Muslim literature. One of the common practices among Sunni Muslims, who call themselves Sufis, is something that is called "dhikr", which is an Islamic devotional act following prayers in which one typically (and usually quietly) recite Islam's 99 Names of God, as well as the prayers of the hadith and the Quran. One of the most beautiful and famous examples of Sufi dhikr is the Sama Ceremony of the Sufi Order Mevlevi in Turkey... also famously known as the "whirling Dervishes." In 2005, the United Nations Educational, scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) declared the Mevlevi Sama Ceremony to be one of the "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity". In case of that, and the considerable writings about him, there is a great Sufi contribution, not only in the Muslim world and the literature, but also for the whole world, then it is difficult to imagine what else it would be. .
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