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Read the excerpt from "Mother Tongue." Lately, I’ve been giving more thought to the kind of English my mother speaks. Like others, I have described it to people as “broken” or “fractured” English. But I wince when I say that. It has always bothered me that I can think of no other way to describe it other than “broken,” as if it were damaged and needed to be fixed, as if it lacked a certain wholeness and soundness. How does Tan build a central idea of her story in the excerpt? Tan discusses her thoughts about language to build the idea that the English language does not have words to match some Chinese terms. Tan discusses her relationship with her mother to build the idea that mothers and daughters in all cultures often have misunderstandings. Tan discusses her mother’s use of English to build the idea that a form of language can be purposeful and meaningful even if it is nonstandard. Tan discusses the English language to build the idea that there is a lack of appropriate synonyms for the word “broken.”
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Which of the following sentences is correctly punctuated?1- On March 21 1985, our community held its bicentennial.2- On March 21, 1985, our community held its bicentennial.3- On March 21, 1985 our community held its bicentennial.4- On March 21, 1985 our community, held its bicentennial.
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Islam main kufar ki ebtada kis ne ki?
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The ideology of Pakistan The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of Muslims of South Asia that are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However, when they realized that their future Democratic India ' dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they changed their demand to a separate state. The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality in the Hindu society. Muslims believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but are two social orders that produced two different cultures. There is No compatibility between the two. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims is not limited to the struggle for supremacy in politics, but are also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than a thousand years, they continue to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, all are poles apart. The basis of the Muslim nation was neither territorial nor racial or linguistic or ethnic rather they were a nation because they belonged to the same faith, Islam. They demanded that areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state, in which they could order their lives according to the teachings of the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (PEACE be upon him). The evolution of 'Two Nation Theory' the Concept of Muslims as a Nation developed before the creation of Pakistan. Pakistan was the product of this concept of nation, rather than Pakistan creating a concept of nation. Retrospectively the Muslim nationalism emerged with the advent of Islam that introduced new principles pertinent to every sphere of life. It promised the redemption of humanity, the establishment of a benign tumor of the society based on the teachings of the Quran. The beginning of the Muslim nationalism in the Sub-Continent may be attributed to the first Indian who accepted Islam. Arab traders had introduced the new religion, Islam, in India the coastal areas. Muhammad bin Qasim was the first Muslim invader who conquered part of India and after that, Mahmud of Ghazna launched 17 attacks and opened the gate to preach Islam. The Muslim sufi (saints) like Ali Hejveri, Miran Hussain Zanjani etc entered in the Sub-Continent. That, by rejecting the vices of the society of India, presented the pure image practice of the teachings of Islam and obtained large number of conversions. Qutub-ud-Din Aibuk permanently established Muslim dynasty in India, followed Sultanate and Mughal dynasties. So a strong Muslim community had emerged in India, which has its own way of life, traditions, heroes, history, and culture. Islam could not be absorbed in Hinduism. Din-e-Ilahi, Bakhti movements, etc .. created reaction amongst the Muslim ulama to preserve the pure Islamic character and save it from external attack. Role of Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi and others is worthy of mention. Equality and social justice inspired conversions to Islam. The British won over the Muslim rulers due to the industrial and scientific developments and modern war strategy. The War of Independence (1857) was a shattering setback to the Indian Muslims who were responsible for the rebellion by the British. The Muslims were put 1 in the backlog with the help of the Hindus. This was one of the prominent motivations that paved the way to declare the separate identity of nationalism, the nationalism of the muslims. Muslim scholars tried to reform the teaching of Islamic law and to promote its application in a Muslim society. The prominent among them is Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98) who woke up and led his community at the time. His educational drive, the Ali-Garh movement, proved to be the best means of social mobility for the Muslim gentry under colonial rule. In 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded to indicate the beginning of the Indian nationalist movement under the British. The Congress worked and helped the British rule. Sir Syed advised the Muslims not to join it because, he thought, the Muslims were not in a position to engage in anti-government activities. It has been argued that Sir Syed's fear of Hindu domination sowed the seeds of the "Two Nations Theory" later espoused by the India Muslim League, founded in 1906 and led to its demand for an independent state for the Muslims of India. Sir Syed argued that modern education and non-political activities might be the key to Muslim advancement. The Ali-Garh movement produced educated leadership who could protect the Muslims ' rights on the Western political lines. All India Muslim League had been founded in Dhaka to promote loyalty to the British and to protect and promote the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India. Thus, the concept of "separate electorates' was put forward to the dawn of a new day for the Indian Muslims. The Two-Nation Theory served as the basis of the demand of Pakistan by the Muslims in British India. There are two major nations in British India. Muslims are not a community but a nation with a distinctive history, heritage, culture, civilization, and future aspirations. The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their identity and promoting their interests in India. Wanted to order their lives according to their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority. Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees and a federal system of government with the powers of the provinces for the protection and promotion of its heritage, identity and interests. Later, they demanded a separate state when neither the British nor the Hindu majority community was willing to offer those guarantees and safeguards. The Hindi-Urdu Controversy Hindu revivalist movements turned more against the Muslims. The hindu nationalism was a rival to the Muslim nationalism. Nationalism Indian forced Muslims to organize politically to defend their interests effectively. After 1857, Hindi-Urdu Controversy was the major assault by the Hindus on Muslim heritage and legacy of the great Muslim Empire. Hindus were biased against Urdu as it was the Muslims ' language. Demanded Hindi as the official language replacing Urdu. There were demonstrations against Urdu by the Hindus in Banaras in 1867. It was the beginning of the Hindi-Urdu controversy. On the same issue, Sir Syed foretold about the unstable future of Hindu-Muslim unity. The hindus fought vigorously to replace Urdu by Hindi in the offices. This increased the importance of the sense of Muslim separatism. The Muslim nationalism is manifested with the sublime principles to implement like: 1. The rule of Law, socio-economic, justice, equity and fair play. 2. The equality of opportunities for all citizens, without distinction of caste, sect, religion or region. 3. Religious and Cultural tolerance. 4. The respect for the dignity and human rights. 5. The protection of the rights and interests of non-Muslims and freedom to practice their beliefs and religions. These principles are enshrined in the constitutions. We must work towards the realization of these objectives into reality and to create institutions and processes that reflect these principles and values.
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